It's a Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic rifle, chambered in .223 (5.56mm). I've been looking at them for while, but I just found out Wal-Mart had started carrying them again, so I could actually afford to buy a brand new one. (And at $150 cheaper than Gander Mountain)
It looks like a pretty standard rifle, but that's because the included magazine is a 5 rounder that fits flush with the bottom of the rifle. I have two 10 round magazines (unfortunately the limit for NY state, bastards) on the way though, and they will stick out from the bottom, making it look a little less like a deer rifle, and a little more like a military rifle. (Which the Mini-14 is actually based on.)
Yes, Bill Ruger based his Mini-14 carbine off the M14 battle rifle, which he helped design. The M14 itself is an upgrade of the M1 Garand rifle. The Mini actually uses a bolt system very much like the M1. Very cool.
And that's my dog, Crichton. I couldn't get him away from the rifle. He likes my toys.